C H N       History of euthanasia in Canada, Part II

Submitted by Cheryl Eckstein, Compassionate Healthcare Network CHN: 

For

The Euthanasia Prevention Coalition's 2007 Euthanasia Symposium

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History of euthanasia in Canada, Part II 1

 

On this page:

 

CHRONOLOGY OF MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT BILLS RELATING TO EUTHANASIA AND PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE

 

RECOMMENDATIONS, STUDIES, INDIVIDUALS & GROUPS OPPOSING OR SUPPORTING THE LEGALIZATION OF  EUTHANASIA, & PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE IN CANADA

 

From the library of Parliament: Studies, Final Reports relating to euthanasia and assisted suicide

 

ADDITIONAL LINKS  Tags: assisted suicide, disabilities, filicide, Latimer, Rodriguez, Canadian bill of rights, Charter . . .

 

Court Decisions

 

PALLIATIVE CARE REPORTS From the library of Parliament

 

LINKS to articles and studies not Canadian

 

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History of euthanasia in Canada, Part II

 

 

 

 

CHRONOLOGY OF MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT BILLS RELATING TO EUTHANASIA AND PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE


16 May 1991 -  On May 16, 1991, Mr. Robert Wenman, member of Parliament for Fraser Valley West (British Columbia), introduced Bill C-203 (an Act to amend the Criminal Code [terminally ill persons]  (An in-depth review can be found at http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1485571&blobtype=pdf

{Editor’s note: Bill C 203 would change my life forever.  Having read the media headline that euthanasia bill was introduced upset and angered me.  Soon after hearing about this, I joined a local pro-life group.  I discovered that Canada had no anti-euthanasia organizations to focus on the threat of PAS & euthanasia, but had at least 2 right-to-die organizations.  Six months later I founded The Compassionate Healthcare Network, believing we had to make a difference and stop this bill.  Bill C 203 was defeated, but the hush did not last long.}

 

19 June 1991 -  Private Members Bill C-261, "An Act to legalize the administration of euthanasia under certain conditions to persons who request it and who are suffering from an irremediable condition and respecting the withholding and cessation of treatment and to amend the Criminal Code"  was read for the first time in the House of Commons. It too died.

10 September 1991 - The Dutch government established the Remmelink Commission, whose mandate was to conduct a nationwide study of the practice of "euthanasia and other medical decisions concerning the end of life." It was the first comprehensive study of Dutch euthanasia practices.  This study brought to light how euthanasia was being tolerated and practiced de facto in the Netherlands.  The Remmelink Report findings are still referred to in many studies and received great attention in Canada. Suggested reading Euthanasia, Ethics and Public Policy: An Argument Against Legalisation  By John Keown See also CHN BOOK & DVD SHELF for a list of other books.
 

18 February 1992 - Legislative Committee H on Bill C 203 adjourned sine die.

 

22 March 1993 - Members of the House of Commons defeated a motion by , MP Ian Waddell (NDP ) that called upon the government to consider the advisability of introducing legislation on the subject of euthanasia and ensuring that those assisting terminally ill persons who wish to die will not be subject to criminal liability. A votable motion, M-397 was defeated 140 to 25.

 

14 February 1994 – Just 2 days after Sue Rodriguez committed suicide with the assistance of a physician, Justice Minister Allan Rock stated that the issues of cessation of treatment and assisted suicide should be considered by Parliament.

15 February 1994 - Prime Minister Chrétien stated that Members of Parliament would have a free vote on whether to legalize doctor-assisted suicide.

16 February 1994 - Private Members Bill C 215, An Act to amend the Criminal Code (aiding suicide), was read for the first time in the House of Commons.  This bill was debated and dropped from the Order Paper on 21 September 1994.

June 2005 -   Bill C-407, An Act to Amend the Criminal Code (Right to Die with Dignity) was introduced by Francine Lalonde, MP. EPC Executive Director Alex Schadenberg highlighted the large number of deficiencies found in the proposed legislation. “This bill is not about allowing a ‘death with dignity,’” he emphasized. “It legalizes euthanasia and assisted suicide for people who suffer chronic physical and mental pain that is treatable.”  Schadenberg added” Bill C-407 is an attack on people with disabilities, people with chronic conditions and other vulnerable Canadians who are already devalued by many members of society. People who need to be protected.”  October 2005 -   Bill C-407 was given one hour of debate in the House of Commons.  It died on the Order Paper in November 2005 with the dissolution of Parliament.



RECOMMENDATIONS, STUDIES, INDIVIDUALS & GROUPS OPPOSING OR SUPPORTING THE LEGALIZATION OF  EUTHANASIA, & PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE IN CANADA

 

1972 Canadian Parliament abolished the offences of suicide and attempted suicide.

1980 The Law Reform Commission of Canada released Consent to Medical care: A Study Paper prepared for the Law Reform Commission of Canada, by SOMERVILLE, Margaret A., 1942

1980 The Canadian pro-euthanasia group Dying With Dignity was founded in June 1980.

1983 The Law Reform Commission of Canada released its Report on Euthanasia, Aiding Suicide and Cessation of Treatment. This report recommended against legalizing or decriminalizing voluntary active euthanasia and aiding suicide.  It also recommended that the Criminal Code be amended so as not to require a physician to undertake or continue to administer medical treatment where the treatment is against the wishes of the person or where the treatment has become therapeutically useless and is not in the best interests of the person. Finally, it recommended that the Criminal Code be amended so as not to prevent a physician from undertaking, or to oblige a physician to cease administering, appropriate palliative care intended to eliminate or to relieve the suffering of a person for the sole reason that such care is likely to shorten the life expectancy of that person. (In Bland (1993), the House of Lords stated that it derived immense support for its reasoning from this Report.)
 

1984  A Joint Statement on Terminal Illness was issued by the Canadian Nursing Association, the Canadian Medical Association, the Canadian Hospital Association in co-operation with the Canadian Bar Association and with advice from the Catholic Health Association of Canada and the Law Reform Commission. The statement established a procedure for Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders.


June 1987 -  The Law Reform Commission of Canada released proposals for amending the Criminal Code.  These included the recommendation that mercy killing be treated as second-degree murder (ordinary murder) rather than as first-degree murder (premeditated murder).  Second-degree murder would carry no fixed or minimum jail term.

 

1990 - David Lewis,  a Vancouver man living with HIV,  boasted to a  local newspaper that he had assisted eight friends, all suffering from AIDS, in committing suicide. In August of 1990, he committed suicide. Lewis rationalized before he died -  "I am not committing suicide. Suicide is when people are emotionally despondent and don’t want to live. I am opposed to suicide. What those people need is counselling. I am a professional counsellor. I have helped hundreds of suicidal people come to see that these emotional wounds eventually heal. I don’t want to die. I have to die. All I am doing is adjusting the time of my death a little so that I can die with dignity. This is completely different. We should have a different word for it." Euthanasia by R. Green

1990 In Malette v. Shulman, the Ontario Court of Appeal upheld the right of a Jehovah's Witness to refuse life-saving blood transfusions and the principle that health care professionals have a duty to respect such a refusal. Further, it upheld the right to refuse (and the duty to respect the refusal of) such transfusions through an advance directive.

In 1991  The B.C. College of Physicians and Surgeons issued a statement against euthanasia after reviewing the deaths of two of Dr. Peter Graff's patients (both patients, one suffering from ALS and one suffering from colon cancer, died of repeated doses of morphine and valium). A provincial coroner's inquiry urged a review of Dr. Graff's actions by the College of Physicians and Surgeons. The College ruled that Dr. Graff's method of treatment was unacceptable and the coroner ruled that both patients died from morphine overdoses. However, no criminal charges were laid.

 

10 September 1991 -  In the Netherlands, the Remmelink Commission released findings from the first comprehensive study of Dutch euthanasia practices.  This study has been referred to extensively.

 

1991 The Right to Die Society was formed in Victoria BC

6 January 1992 -  A woman known as Nancy B., who had Guillain-Barré syndrome, that had left her permanently paralysed below the neck. had twice asked her doctor for her ventilator to be disconnected. Though sympathetic to her request, her doctor feared he would be criminally liable, and refused.  Nancy took it before the Quebec Superior Court, where Justice Dufour ruled in her favor, but declined to order her physician to set in motion the procedure. He did however require that if the physician was unwilling to comply with the request to disconnect the ventilator, the physician must transfer the care of Nancy B., to a colleague who would comply, and that the hospital should fully co-operate with any physician responsible for the patient’s care.  Five weeks following the judgment, her physician induced Nancy B. into a coma, removed the respirator and it is reported that she died comfortably in her sleep.

 

1992 The Compassionate Healthcare Network (CHN) was formed in Surrey BC.  It was Canada's first not for profit anti-euthanasia organization.

 

3 November 1993 - The British Columbia Ministry of the Attorney General issued guidelines for Crown Counsel with respect to charging persons involved in cases of active euthanasia and assisted suicide.

30 September 1993 - In a five-to-four decision, the Supreme Court of Canada dismissed an appeal by Sue Rodriguez in which she challenged the validity of the Criminal Code prohibition on assisted suicide under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

 

12 February 1994 - Sue Rodriguez committed suicide with the assistance of a physician.  The death was investigated by police, but no criminal charge was laid.

14 February 1994 - Justice Minister Allan Rock stated that the issues of cessation of treatment and assisted suicide should be considered by Parliament.

15 February 1994 - Prime Minister Chrétien stated that Members of Parliament would have a free vote on whether to legalize doctor-assisted suicide.

16 February 1994 - Private Members Bill C 215, An Act to amend the Criminal Code (aiding suicide), was read for the first time in the House of Commons.  This bill was debated and dropped from the Order Paper on 21 September 1994.

23 February 1994 - A Special Senate Committee was established to examine and report on the legal, social, and ethical issues relating to euthanasia and assisted suicide.

 

November 1994 - Robert Latimer was convicted of second-degree murder in the asphyxiation death of his severely disabled 12-year-old daughter Tracy and sentenced to life in prison with no eligibility for parole for ten years.

 

June 1995 -  The Special Senate Committee on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide issued its report entitled Of Life and Death. The Committee was unanimous in its conclusion that involuntary euthanasia continue to be treated as murder under the Criminal Code.  The majority of the Committee members opposed voluntary euthanasia, and nonvoluntary euthanasia, they recommended that it continue as a criminal offence.  Still it is troubling that they recommended that Parliament should consider the creation of a separate offense of compassionate homicide that would carry a less severe penalty than a mandatory life sentence.  

 

Orville R. Endicott said “These innocuous terms ("compassionate homicide" or third degree murder) only serve to conceal what would be in effect the murder of a vulnerable person.” 

 

Ian Robinson, Calgary Sun Columnist had this to say, ”Compassionate homicide.  That's as sensible a concept as "loving rape.’”


February 1997 - The Supreme Court of Canada ordered a new trial for Robert Latimer.

December 1997 - Robert Latimer, having again been convicted of second-degree murder, was sentenced to two years less a day, notwithstanding that the minimum sentence under the Criminal Code is life in prison with no possibility of parole for ten years.

 

February 1997 - The Supreme Court of Canada ordered a new trial for Robert Latimer.

May 1997 -   Dr. Nancy Morrison was charged with the first-degree murder of a terminally ill patent that had been removed from active life support.

December 1997 - Robert Latimer, having again been convicted of second-degree murder, was sentenced to two years less a day, notwithstanding that the minimum sentence under the Criminal Code is life in prison with no possibility of parole for ten years.

February 1998 - A Nova Scotia judge found that there was not sufficient evidence for a jury to convict Dr. Nancy Morrison, and refused to commit her to trial.


November 1998 -  The Saskatchewan Court of Appeal confirmed the conviction of Robert Latimer and imposed a sentence of life imprisonment with no eligibility for parole for ten years.

 

In July 1999, Dr. Douglas Kinsella and Marja Verhoef of the University of Calgary published results of a 1995 survey of Canadian physicians in the journal of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) Of 1,855 practicing physicians who responded to the survey, 57% said they would not practice physician-assisted suicide if it were legalized. When asked whether they would want physician-assisted suicide for themselves or a close relative, 40% said they would want it for themselves if terminally ill, and 38% said they would want it for a relative. Even among the 40% of physicians who would want physician-assisted suicide for themselves, only 45% said they would be willing to practice it, 25% said they would not be willing, and 30% were uncertain.


June 2000 - The Senate Subcommittee studying developments with respect to the unanimous recommendations made in Of Life and Death in 1995 submitted its report, entitled Quality End-of-Life Care:  The Right of Every Canadian, in June 2000.

January 2001 - The Supreme Court of Canada upheld the decision of the Saskatchewan Court of Appeal with regard to Robert Latimer.

June 2005 -   Bill C-407, An Act to Amend the Criminal Code (Right to Die with Dignity) was introduced by Francine Lalonde, MP.

On October 26, 2005: A group of  61 physicians and 39 lawyers issued a strong warning not to legalize physician assisted suicide or euthanasia in Canada. “"We do not want to become the executioners of our patients."  The statement had been issued in advance of the second reading of private members Bill C-407. For more information on
Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide A Joint Statement by Doctors and Lawyers see also http://www.lifesite.net/ldn/2005/oct/05102603.html

October 2005 -   Bill C-407 was given one hour of debate in the House of Commons.  It died on the Order Paper in November 2005 with the dissolution of Parliament.  Euthanasia Prevention Coalition Executive Director Alex Schadenberg highlighted the large number of deficiencies found in the proposed legislation. “This bill is not about allowing a ‘death with dignity,’” he emphasized. “It legalizes euthanasia and assisted suicide for people who suffer chronic physical and mental pain that is treatable.”  “Bill C-407 allows any person to kill another person,”Schadenberg added. “Once society allows one person to kill another person it soon becomes impossible to protect people who are otherwise viewed as a ‘burden’ on society. Bill C-407 is an attack on people with disabilities, people with chronic conditions and other vulnerable Canadians who are already devalued by many members of society.  People who need to be protected.”  


 

From the library of Parliament: Studies, Final Reports relating to euthanasia and assisted suicide

 

 

EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE Revised 12 August  1998 

Prepared by: Mollie Dunsmuir, Margaret Smith, Susan Alter, Law and Government Division Sandra Harder, Political and Social Affairs Division

 

EUTHANASIA AND ASSISTED SUICIDE in Canada  Revised 23 February 2006  

Prepared by: Mollie Dunsmuir, Marlisa Tiedemann  Law and Government Division

PDF (122.12 Kb, 26 pages)

 

Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: International Experiences Prepared by: Mollie, Dunsmuir, Marlisa Tiedemann Law and Government Division 7 May 2007 PDF (124.87 Kb, 18 pages)

The Special Senate Committee on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide Of Life and Death - Final Report June 1995  Appendix D  Chronology of Major Canadian Developments and Events

The Special Senate Committee on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide Of Life and Death - Final Report June 1995  Appendix M  Contains Chronology of Major Canadian Developments and Events Relevant Provisions of the Criminal Code and the Civil Code

Proceedings of the Subcommittee to Update "Of Life and Death"  Issue 6 – Evidence OTTAWA, Monday, March 20, 2000.  This is a good read, especially comments and arguments opposing the creation of a new law – that section begins with “Honourable senators, our next witness this afternoon is Mr. Hugh Scher, Chair of the Human Rights Committee of the Council of Canadians with Disabilities.”

Quality End-of-Life Care: The Right of Every Canadian. Final Report. June 6, 2000  Subcommittee to update "Of Life and Death" of the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology "Final Report"

Towards the right to be killed? Treatment refusal, assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States and Canada  Trudo Lemmens Centre de Recherche en Droit Public, Universite' de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada


 

 

"There is not one case in Oregon of assisted suicide being used for actual untreatable pain. Pain can be treated. Assisted suicide has been used for psychological and social concerns. "Dr. Kenneth Stevens, professor of radiation oncology at Oregon Health Sciences University. (November, 2005)

 


ADDITIONAL LINKS 

 

The Canadian Bill of Rights   Assented to 10th August 1960: An Act for the Recognition and Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms  R.S.C. 1985, Appendix III  "Preamble - The Parliament of Canada, affirming that the Canadian Nation is founded upon principles that acknowledge the supremacy of God, the dignity and worth of the human person and the position of the family in a society of free men and free institutions. . ." The bill has not been taken seriously by the courts.

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (also known as The Charter of Rights and Freedoms  e.g., "15. (1) Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability."  ( e.g., see Rodriguez v. British Columbia (Attorney General) (1993), 24 C.R. (4th) 281 (S.C.C.  Rodriguez argued that the ban on assisted suicide violated the Constitution, by obstructing her rights of personal liberty and autonomy guaranteed in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The court rejected her argument in 1993, narrow ruling of 5-4 that society's obligation to preserve life and protect the vulnerable outweighed her rights. ).

Altruistic Filicide: Bioethics or Criminology?  Dick Sobsey, Ed.D  JP Das Developmental Disabilities Centre University of Alberta. Nov., 2001.  Professor Sobsey says “the killing of Tracy Latimer and other so-called "altruistic homicides" are, in fact, among the most common child murders in Canada and around the world. In Canada, about 80% of murdered children are murdered by one or both of their own parents and about half of parents who kill their children express the belief that they acted altruistically.” 

An argument against mercy killing: a response to Catlin's "normalization, chronic sorrow, and murder" Teresa A. Savage  "Mike Ervin, a journalist with muscular dystrophy, responded to a Chicago Tribune editorial ...He said, "I need someone every day to help me bathe and move my limbs and dispose of my bodily wastes ... So do I deserve a bullet in the brain? ... I live in my own condo and a state program pays for people to assist me at home under my direction ...  we are still capable of treating people ... with such profound contempt. When they need help, we shrug and say it's a family responsibility. When it's too much for the family, we offer no alternatives but surrender to a nursing home or death. No wonder they perceive themselves as hopeless. And then we mock their memories by dismissing their deaths with the disdainful oxymoron of mercy killing. We say killing a human being is murder but killing them {disabled} is something less. How demoralizing it is to be reminded just how unwelcome people with disabilities still are in our culture. We should use the death of the Scott brothers to dedicate ourselves to creating the kind of supportive society where no one is ever made to feel like a burden."

Maternal Filicide in Que´bec  In an eight-year review (1991 to 1998) of all consecutive coroners’ files in Que´bec, Canada, the authors identified a total of 34 cases of victims who were killed by their mothers.

 

LEGALIZING PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED DEATH: CAN SAFEGUARDS PROTECT THE INTERESTS OF VULNERABLE PERSONS? PREPARED FOR THE COUNCIL OF CANADIANS WITH DISABILITIES BY ORVILLE R. ENDICOTT UNDER THE SPONSORSHIP OF THE CANADIAN BAR ASSOCIATION "LAW FOR THE FUTURE FUND"  2003

 

Council of Canadians with Disabilities Hugh Scher Swears Affidavit in Genereux Case.”  Dr Genereux was charged with assisted suicide of two patients with AIDS, HIV positive, who were depressed but not terminal. “CCD is concerned that the gravity of Dr. Genereux's offenses may be diminished through a minimal sentence. CCD will argue that a deterrent sentence is necessary to fulfill the purpose of the assisted suicide provisions of s. 241(b) of the Criminal Code: to preserve life and protect vulnerable persons.   Dr. Genereux  had already been found guilty of sexual misconduct and was practicing medicine under the following restrictions: that he receive psychotherapy and that he not be alone with patients during examinations.

Latimer Wins Case in Media by Prof. Dick Sobsey, University of Alberta Abuse and Disability Project

CANADIAN CASES  TRACY LATIMER   ROBERT LATIMER   SUE RODRIGUEZ  A list of articles (some exclusive to CHN) and links to important archives on the Compassionate Healthcare Network (CHN) site.

 

Egregious Inaction: Five Years After Of Life and Death - Health Law Review Vol 9 Number 1

Active and passive euthanasia: the cases of Drs. Claudio Alberto de la Rocha and Nancy Morrison Daniel Gorman, MD     Canadian Medical Association CMAJ • MAR. 23, 1999; 160 (6)

Canadian Law on Euthanasia: Contrasts and Comparisons TRUDO LEMMENS and BERNARD DICKENS Both of the Faculty of Law, Faculty of Medicine and Joint Centre for Bioethics University of Toronto, Canada  European Journal of Health Law 8: 135-155, 2001. © 2001 Kluwer Law International. Printed in the Netherlands.

 

A Culture of Death  By Diane Martindale

 "In the underworld of assisted suicide and euthanasia, Russel Ogden examines the means and methods--even as he is shunned by academia and chased by the law"

 

Court Decisions

Child and Family Services of Central Manitoba v. R.L. “In November 1997 the Manitoba Court of Appeal announced its decision in the case of an infant in persistent vegetative state whose "do not resuscitate" (DNR) order was being contested. The infant was admitted to hospital at the age of three months with severe brain damage resulting from a savage attack. He was immediately apprehended by Child and Family Services of Central Manitoba. Having determined that he was in a persistent vegetative state, his physician recommended a DNR order and the Child and Family Services agreed. However, the parents refused to consent, and so Child and Family Services applied for and received a court order authorizing the DNR order. . . ."

A Do Not Resucitate Order for an Infant Against Parental Wishes: A Comment on the Case of Child and Family Services of Central Manitoba v. R.L. and S.L.H. Barney Sneiderman*  Although L. and H. is the only reported appellate court decision in Canada involving the withholding of CPR, the matter has been treated in the Joint Statement on Resuscitative Interventions issued in 1995 by the Canadian Medical Association . . .

 


 

PALLIATIVE CARE REPORTS

From the library of Parliament

 

The Special Senate Committee on Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide Of Life and Death - Final Report June 1995  Appendix M  Palliative Care in Canada

LINK TO INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF PALLIATIVE CARE

Attitudes towards, and wishes for, euthanasia in advanced cancer patients at a palliative medicine unit   Johansen S, Hølen JC, Kaasa S, Loge JH, Materstvedt LJ. 2005 /Palliative Medicine/; 19: 454-460. Appendix Table A1 Themes and questions from the interview guide – entire list of questions

 


LINKS to articles and studies not Canadian

 

 

Amici Curiae Brief of Not Dead Yet and American Disabled for Attendant Programs Today, in Dennis C. Vacco, et al. v. Timothy E. Quill, et al., Supreme Court of the United States, October Term, 1995.

 

Futile Care Theory and Medical Fascism  The Duty to Die   by Wesley J. Smith  Excellent article that originally appeared in a magazine in 1998.    see also, http://www.euthanasiaprocon.org/futilityendanger.html

 

Medical Treatment (Prevention of Euthanasia) Bill [28 Jan 2000]  ". . .There was disagreement on the Committee about the legal definition of assisted food and fluid as treatment. None the less, it recognised the dangers of having this enshrined in statute, thus allowing doctors to withdraw tubal feeding from patients who were not dying."

 

Leslie Burke Will to live home page - Welcome to my Web Site. "I have been granted a judicial review to challenge the General Medical Council's guideline regarding the Withholding of Artificial Feeding and Hydration for the purpose of ending life.  This is a must visit site.

Date: May 17th 2006

Photo of Les Burke

Right to life case goes to Europe - Leslie Burke lodges appeal at ECtHR  Right to receive artificial nutrition

Leslie Burke, 46, who suffers from a rare and progressive neurological condition will today take his case to the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). Leslie is fighting for the right to receive artificial nutrition and hydration once he is unable to voice his wishes.

"I am doing this because I feel that I have been left with no alternative. I am not seeking to have my life prolonged unnecessarily by invasive medical procedures - I would just like to have the opportunity to receive artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) up until the very end," said Leslie.

Leslie has previously challenged the General Medical Council's (GMC) guidelines on when life sustaining treatment should be withdrawn in the High Court and in the Court of Appeal.

February 5, 2005 NHS could save cash' by letting patients die Don't think it won't happen, or won't happen 'here'.

  

The UK passed its Infanticide Act in 1938.  In 2006 the Law Commission released an extensive study on infanticide, giving details of 31 cases of infanticide.  Also study on mercy killing and recommendations for penalties. 75.7 % of the victims were over the age of 12 months. The Law Commission LAW COM No 304  http://www.lawcom.gov.uk/docs/lc304.pdf

STEERING COMMITTEE ON BIOETHICS (CDBI) Council of Europe - Replies to the questionnaire for member States relating to euthanasia :  For example, the question in part is “Is the following term used in your country (y/n)? Euthanasia …”  A list of countries follow with their answers.  This is how Greece answered:  “There is no definition of the above mentioned terms in legal documents. The terms are used in literature in their usual meaning. “  “Netherlands: The Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (Review Procedures) Act concerns euthanasia in response to a patient’s voluntary and carefully considered request for the termination of his or her life. Assisted suicide is defined as intentionally helping another person to commit suicide or providing him with the means to do so as referred to in article 294, paragraph 2, second sentence, of the Criminal Code. All statutory provisions referred to have been annexed.”  This is a good resource page for researchers. 

REFERENCE

1. The hyperlink for History of euthanasia in Canada, Part I is http://www.chninternational.com/history_of_euthanasia_in_canada%20by%20Cheryl%20Eckstein%2007.htm

2.The hyperlink for History of euthanasia in Canada Part II is http://www.chninternational.com/history_of_euthanasia_in_canada%20part2.htm

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History of euthanasia in Canada Part II, compiled by Cheryl Eckstein, Compassionate Healthcare Network CHN for The Euthanasia Prevention Coalition's 2007 Euthanasia Symposium

 

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